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XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy)

  • X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy is qualitative surface analysis technique that can characterize the surface chemistry of materials (chemical state and concentration).
  • X-rays are focused onto material, and then measure the emitted electrons intensity and energy from the top 1-10nm of the surface.
  • Quantified elemental depth profiling through layers can provide both layer and contamination intensities.

Strengths Limitations

- Quantification without separate standards
- Good for insulators
- Elemental depth profiling for thin films

- Relatively poor detection sensitivity (0.1 at%)
- Relatively poor spatial resolution (~10um)
- Elemental H and He not quantifiable

More information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray_photoelectron_spectroscopy